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What are The Multiple Intelligences?
In 1983, Howard Gardner (at Harvard) determined that there are 7 ways that students learn. Teachers have always known that students learn differently, but Mr. Gardner gave a "name" to the various ways students learn. Much study had been done on Multiple Intelligences in the last 26 years. Below is the list of Multiple Intelligences and an explanation of how they are incorporated into the Click and Learn system.
The capacity to use language, your native language, and perhaps other languages, to express what's on your mind and to understand other people. Poets really specialize in linguistic intelligence, but any kind of writer, orator, speaker, lawyer, or a person for whom language is an important stock in trade, highlights linguistic intelligence.
Click and Learn makes use of this Multiple Intelligence when students whisper the answers as they click. They are learning to associate the state name with a place on a map. This is also why we require the student to "recite all 50 states in 50 seconds."
People with highly developed logical mathematical intelligence understand the underlying principles of some kind of a causal system, the way a scientist or a logician does; or can manipulate numbers, quantities and operations, the way a Mathematician does.
Click and Learn makes use of this Multiple Intelligence by presenting the questions in a logical (alphabetical) order. As the student is racing the clock to click the answer, they are thinking "what state is next in the alphabet." If they do not do this, they will not be able to beat the clock or Win the Game.
The ability to represent the spatial world internally in your mind - the way a sailor or airplane pilot navigates the large spatial world, or the way a chess player or sculptor represents a more circumscribed spatial world. Spatial intelligence can be used in the arts or in the sciences. If you are spatially intelligent and oriented toward the arts, you are more likely to become a painter or sculptor or architect than, say a musician or a writer. Similarly, certain sciences like anatomy or topology emphasize spatial intelligence.
Click and Learn makes use of this MI by presenting the subject as a picture or map on the screen that the students are constantly watching and interacting with. Intense and contrasting colors are also used. The students are developing a Mental Map of the USA, the World, their state or bones of the body. We also use this MI with the Flashcard games where we present the shape of a state or country on the screen and ask the student to identify the state.
4) Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence:
The capacity to use your whole body or parts of your body (your hands, your fingers, your arms), to solve a problem, make something, or put on a production. The most evident examples are people in athletics or the performing arts, particularly when dancing or acting.
Click and Learn makes use of this MI by requiring the students to click the answers in a particular pattern. As the student moves their hand and clicks the buttons, they are remembering the pattern for the location of the states or bones of the body. They are also involving their adrenaline because they are racing the clock to win the game. This is also why we provide the blank paper maps for testing - it is important for the student to write the answers on paper - several times if necessary.
5) Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence:
The capacity to think to music, to be able to hear patterns, recognize them, and perhaps manipulate them. People who have strong musical intelligence don't just remember music easily - they can't get it out of their minds, it's so omnipresent.
We do not use the Musical/Rhythmic MI in the Click and Learn games/drills.
6) Interpersonal Intelligence:
Interpersonal intelligence, is understanding other people. It's an ability we all need, but is at a premium if you are a teacher, clinician, salesperson, or a politician. Anybody who deals with other people has to be skilled in the interpersonal sphere.
Click and Learn makes use of this MI in several ways. 1) In a computer lab, it is good to let your students interact with each other as they use the computer. You will notice that they challenge each other and brag about their speed. 2) Have students work in pairs and "time" each other as they recite the 50 states. Students take turns timing each other. 3) After you are sure that a student can recite the 50 states, call on them one by one in class and have them recite. They CAN do it and they are excited to be an equal in the class as they recite.
7) Intrapersonal Intelligence:
Having an understanding of yourself, of knowing who you are, what you can do, what you want to do, how you react to things, which things to avoid, and which things to gravitate toward.
Click and Learn makes use of this MI. "Intra-Personal" means "inside yourself." Almost every computer application (particularly educational games) helps the student develop their intrapersonal intelligence. They are working at their own speed without outside pressure.
Two More Ways:
We believe that students also use "Linkage" and "Association" to help them learn.
Linkage: To us, Linkage means: "Linking past knowledge with new knowledge. Students link their knowledge of the alphabet with the alphabetical list of the 50 states. As they think and learn and play, they are constantly linking back to First Grade skills (the alphabet).
Association: As we learn the states, countries or counties we are forming mental images and mental associations with the information we are processing. We associate the four "New" states - we associate the two "North" states. We associate Kenya with the New York Marathon. We associate Vietnam with the war. We associate St. Louis with the Arch and we associate the "Steelers" with Pennsylvania.
In addition, we all have Personal associations that may mean nothing to others. For example, one student (last name Butler) has a best friend (last name Chase). When he is learning the counties of Kansas, the county after Butler is Chase! He uses that as an association to help him learn. Another example for older students: Douglas Edwards was one of the most well-known news correspondents in the 50's. As an older student clicks Douglas County in Kansas, he knows that the next county will be Edwards. These are very personal ways of learning and remembering.
Note: Titles and explanations for the 7 Multiple Intelligences were taken from a study by Jane Carlson-Pickering which was paid for by the University of Rhode Island and the Rhode Island Foundation. Much more information regarding her study can be found on the Internet.
Note: Howard Gardner continues his research and study. He recently added two more Intelligences: Naturalist Intelligence and Existential Intelligence.